Chalmers Conferences, LCM 2013

Bengt Steen, Stefan Allard, Christian Ekberg, Viktor Ekermo, Christer Forsgren, Sravya Kosaraju

Last modified: 2014-09-11


In the EU APPLES project, a new Li ion battery is developed. An LCA
model including weighting was developed for this battery and a reference.
Simulations were made with different materials and recycling rates.
The results indicate that if all cars are BEVs or HEVs, global mining of Li,
Ni and Sn may have to increase several times. There will also a significant
increase in the demand of Cu and Mn. If the electricity used for charging the
batteries is made by non-fossil methods, such as water power, management
of metal resources are a prime sustainability factor. The optimal recycling
rate depends highly on the recycling technology, but also on the weighting
methods used.


Li battery; recycling; target; metals; vehicles


APPLES (2013) available at

Goedkoop M, Spriensmaa R (1999): The Eco-indicator 99 – A Damage Oriented Method for Life Cycle Impact Assessment. PRé Consultants, Amersfoort, The Netherlands

Hawkins T, Gausen O M and Strømman AH. (2012). Environmental impacts of hybrid and electric vehicles – a
review. Int J Life Cycle Assess, Volume 17, Issue 8, pp 997-1014

Mark Goedkoop, Reinout Heijungs, Mark Huijbregts, An De Schryver, Jaap Struijs, Rosalie van Zelm. (2009). ReCiPe 2008 A life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and the endpoint level. Ruimte en Milieu, Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting. (Weighting factors, version 0.6 downloaded from ReCiPe homepage

Kushnir, D and Sandén,B. (2012). The Time Dimension and Lithium Resource Constraints for Electric Vehicles. Resources Policy, Volume 37, Issue 1, March 2012, Pages 93–103

Steen B (1999): A Systematic Approach to Environmental Priority Strategies in Product Development (EPS). Version 2000 –Models and Data. Chalmers University of Technology, Centre for Environmental Assessment of Products and material Systems (CPM) Report 1999:5, Gothenburg 1999

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