Chalmers Conferences, LCM 2013

Marc-Andree Wolf, Kirana Chomkhamsri, Fulvio Ardente

Last modified: 2014-09-11


This paper guides the application of ISO 14044 for closed- and open-loop
recycling (including for multi-material products), energy recovery, and
reuse/further use, based on the provisions of the “ILCD Handbook –
General guide on LCA” [EC 2010] and converted into a quantitative
formula for the first time. This “ILCD Recyclability substitution” approach
takes into account both the input of recycled material into the product
(recycled content) and the quantity and quality of recycled material
generated at the end-of-life of the product (recyclability, multi-functionality
of the material), via "expansion of the system boundary to avoid allocation".
It captures both physical reality and market-based effects.


LCA; method; end-of-life; multifunctionality; ILCD


European Commission (EC) - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Environment and Sustainability. (2010). International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook - General guide for Life Cycle Assessment - Detailed guidance. First edition March 2010. EUR 24708 EN. Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union; 2010.

ISO 14044:2006. (2006). Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and guidelines. International Standard Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland

Nicholson, A.L.; Olivetti, E.A.; Gregory, J.R.; Field, F.R.; and Kirchain, R.E. (2009). End-of-life LCA allocation methods: open loop recycling impacts on robustness of material selection decisions. URL, retrieved 13.05.2013

Ekvall T. (1994). Principles for Allocation at Multi-Output Processes and Cascade Recycling. Leiden, February 1994. SETAC-Europe. In Proceedings of the European workshop on allocation in LCA. (ISBN 90-5191-078-9), Leiden, 1994,

National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc. (NCASI). (2012). Methods for open-loop recycling allocation in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of paper products. Technical Bulletin No. 1003. URL; retrieved 13.05.2013.

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